M1/M2 interships available in the team:

Study of cell migration within confined environment:

We propose to elucidate the cellular mechanisms underlying one critical step in tumor progression: the endothelial transmigration. Indeed, when entering (intravasation) and exiting (extravasation) the vascular vessels, cancer cells need to transmigrate across the endothelial layer of the blood vessel walls which stiffness and geometric confinement creates serious challenges to the cancer cells, requiring them to sustain drastic deformations.

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Role of contact interaction and secreted factors in the emergence of social behavior in the amoeba Dictyostelium Discoideum

The general objective of the host team is to deduce the rules underlying the cell-cell interactions and their macroscopic outcome in term of collective migration, cell dispersion or self-organization at a population scale. Using, microdevices, we would like to develop during this internship various cell sorters that may help us to understand these rules and to identify later mutants that do not secrete or detect the QSF molecules.

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Cell volume control in biological tissues

Within an organism or in laboratory culture conditions, mammalian cells need to actively regulate their size. This control is required to maintain tissue homeostasis, regular development or cope with osmotic or mechanical stress applied by the environment.

Project 1: How single cells define a homeostatic size/volume, a biophysical approach?

Using microfluidic devices to measure single cell volume, the intern will characterize the single cell response and adaptation to osmotic stress. The role of the main mechanosensitive actors i.e. cytoskeleton or ion channels, and adhesion will be decipher using drugs or gene silencing approaches.

Project 2: Characterization of the collective response of a tissue to osmo-mechanical stress:

The intern will use live microscopy technics to quantify the response of biological tissues to osmo-mechanical constraints. He will perform experiments and participate in the development of image analysis tools quantify the stress and the volume of the cells within the tissue.

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Multicellular Tumor Spheroid (MCTS) model for evaluation of the efficiency of nanoparticle drug delivery

In most current treatment of cancer, only a few percentage of the injected drug is actually reaching the tumour cell. The rest is just diluted in all part of the body and is responsible of many side effects. This impairs the use of a high drug concentration and decrease treatment efficiency. It is then rather difficult to translate a dose showing a therapeutic activity in-vitro into in-vivo drug concentration to be injected in the patient. One approach to overcome this issue is to use nanoparticles as drug carriers or therapeutic agents. FENNEC team of ILM has developed sub-5 nm ultrasmall nanoparticles made of polysiloxane that can be visualized in MRI and are effective radiosensitizers for radiotherapy.

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Development of a Brillouin spectrometer for ultra-fast imaging of biological tissues

Micro-Brillouin spectroscopy allows characterizing the viscoelastic properties by measuring the hypersonic waves propagating within the tissue. This non-invasive optical method of characterization has recently been used successfully for the study of individual cells, thus allowing to follow the effect of osmotic shocks, or to carry out the mapping of a mouse eye 1,2. These recent results have been obtained using a new type of spectrometer called VIPA (virtual image phased array) allowing to realize cartographies in a few minutes. The objective of this training will be to design, build and characterize a VIPA spectrometer that will complement the existing spectrometer. The immense potential of use in biology as well as future technological developments will make it possible to envisage a continuation of this subject in PhD.

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L3/M1 interships available in the team:

Design of Cell Sorter and Cell Collider to understand Collective Cell Migration

Collective cell migration is important in many physio-pathological processes like embryo development, immune response, wound healing or cancer progression. When cell density is maximum (confluence), cells move as convective viscous liquid. When cell density is very low, cells perform random walks eventually biased by chemical interactions (chemotaxis). However, the mechanisms of the emergence of collective migration are not well known especially at intermediate density. How cells tend to escape, to self-align or aggregate each other?

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